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Wrestling with the Word, episode 109: Fifth Sunday in Lent, Year A (April 10, 2011) March 28, 2011

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Fifth Sunday in Lent

I confess. I am fascinated by the discoveries of science that help us understand the development of life and the rich variety of life on earth. I also celebrate the knowledge that every life form is the way it is because it needs to be the way it is! Yet I find the biblical understandings of life and death to be even more fascinating. Frankly, I do not see the two approaches – science and Bible — to be mutually exclusive. Celebrating human life as the Bible defines it enables me to consider the values and ethics and meaning of human living within this great biological, botanical, and bacterial diversity. The faith-inspired lessons for today can help us discern what life and death mean. Let us see whether together we can discover in the lessons some biblical under-standings about death and some values of life with God and with one another.

Download or listen to Wrestling with the Word, episode 109: Fifth Sunday in Lent, Year A.

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Psalm 130
The psalm is that of an individual prayer. More specifically, it is a penitential prayer (like Psalm 51 and others). The psalmist begins with a cry to God from “the depths.” The depths represent darkness, isolation from God and others, even death. Death indeed is separation from God, and whatever led this petitioner to “the depths,” one thing is clear: The only way out is God’s forgiveness of iniquities. Apart from divine forgiveness, no one could possibly survive. God’s forgiveness has a purpose, however: “that you (God) may be revered” (v. 4). The psalmist confesses to God that this separation from God is unbearable and that the cry from the depths is the worshiper’s way of waiting for the Lord’s forgiveness. It is God’s “word” in which the God-forsaken one places “hope.” The final two verses change the flow dramatically from an individual prayer to an announcement to all Israel. The words call the people of Israel to “hope in the Lord” because in the Lord are covenant loyalty (steadfast love) and the power to redeem the people from their iniquities (vss. 7-8). This transition can be interpreted in one of two ways. On the one hand, they might be the words of a priest announcing publicly in the temple the need to “hope in the Lord,” in which case the individual making confession in verses 1-6 would find comfort and response from God. On the other hand, the final words might represent the psalmist’s announcement to others in the temple that the Lord has heard his cry and that they also should place their hope in God who forgives. In either case, the psalm makes abundantly clear that the loyalty of God gives us hope because the Lord does not allow us to remain in the clutches of death.

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Ezekiel 37:1-14
Although the people lost hope in God and knew only death, God, through the prophetic word, gives new life and reunites the hopeless and forsaken to himself.

Context
The people of Israel had been exiled to the land of Babylon in 597 B.C. and again in 587 B.C.  In the fifth year of the first exile, that is, in 593 B.C., God called Ezekiel, a priest, to prophesy to the exiles.  Much of his prophecy was directed to a false optimism as he preached to the exiles the destruction of their city back home.  Finally, according to 33:21, a messenger came with the word that Jerusalem had fallen.  Thereafter, the word from Ezekiel was one of promise of restoration to the land.

Key Words
V. 1.  hāyetâ ’ēlay yad-YHWH = “the hand of the Lord was upon me”:  See 3:22 where the “hand of the Lord” is the means by which God introduces a vision to the prophet, instructing him to go into the plain; there the spirit entered him and stood him up.  See also 8:1 where “the hand of the Lord” falls on the prophet, again introducing him to a vision.

V. 1.  wayyôtsî’ēnî berûach YHWH = “and the spirit of the Lord brought me out”:  Note the connection of the Spirit with the hand of the Lord in the two passages cited previously, 3:22 and 8:1.  More specifically, the movement by the spirit is attested at 3:12, 14.  habbiq‘â = “the plain”:  it is also in “the plain” that the vision of Ezekiel 3:22ff. occurs.  There the plain is the space where judgment must be suffered, and that judgment falls upon Ezekiel to suffer vicariously for the sins of Israel and Judah.  This plain is the one mentioned at Gen. 11:1 where the people built a tower with its top in the heavens, and thus experienced God’s judgment.

V. 3.  ben-’ādām = “son of man”:  God addresses Ezekiel with this title more than 80 times in the book, thereby contrasting the holy God and the mortal man (see also Ps. 8:4).  YHWH ’attâ yādā‘tā_ = “Lord, you know”:  For God’s power of life over death, see 1 Kings 17:17ff where the prophet Elijah was the vehicle by which God restored to life the only son of the widow of Zarephath; also 2 Kings 4:31ff. where Elisha raised from the dead the only son of the Shunamite woman.

V. 5.  anî mēbî’ bākem rûach wihyîtem = “I will keep bringing among you spirit/breath/wind, that you may live”:  The word “spirit” is used is various ways in the prophecy; at v. 1 it seems to be God’s spirit; here it is the animating spirit for humans; at v. 9 it is the wind.  That the rûach of God creates and restores life can be see also at Gen. 6:3; 6:17; 7:22 (all P); also Job 12:10; Ps. 104:30.  Note the contrast with Gen. 2:7 where the force that God breathes into Adam’s nostrils is not rûach but neshāmâ = “breath.”

V. 6.  wîda‘tem kî-’anî YHWH = “and you shall know that I am YHWH”:  The expression occurs eighty-six times in the Book of Ezekiel; note the priestly emphasis (P) in the story of the exodus (Exod. 14:18).

V. 11.  yābešû ‘atsmôtênû = “our bones are dried up”:  The statement of the people indicates the meaning of death. Recall the warning of God to Adam and Eve regarding the consequence of eating the forbidden fruit: “on the day that you eat of it, you shall die” (Gen 2:17) yet they did not expire on that day; they died. Note Prov. 22:17 where “a downcast spirit” is what “dries up the bones.”  we’ābedâ tiqwātēnû = “and our hope is perishing”:  The object of Israel’s hope is exclusively YHWH (see Ps. 130:5; also 39:7); at times “hope” is even used as an epithet for YHWH (see Ps. 130:7; Jer. 14:8;17:13).  nigzarnû lānû = “we are cut off”:  for the impact of such exclusion see the use of nigzar at 2 Chron. 26:21; Ps. 88:6; Isa. 53:8.

V. 12.  weha‘alêtî ’etkem miqqibrôtêkem = “and I will raise you from your graves”:  The image is now changed, for here the corpses are buried in graves rather than scattered on the ground, as in v. 1.

V. 14.  kî-’anî YHWH dibbartî we‘āsîtî = “for I, YHWH, have spoken and I have done it”:  The notion that it is the spoken word that accomplishes the great acts of the Lord became particularly prominent and important during the Babylonian Exile; cf. Gen. 1; Isa. 55:10-11.

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Romans 8:1-11
Left to our own devices (our sinfulness, our self-centered devotion to worldly success and comfort) that lead to death, God gives us the Spirit of life and peace by acquitting us of our sin through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Context
In the early chapters of Romans, Paul has been contrasting the universality of human sinfulness with God’s gracious declaration of justification through the cross of Christ. He has insisted on the failure of our actions to secure God’s love through the law (even the law of Moses). The law focuses our minds on our selves, our deeds, our innocence. In Christ, however, God discharges us from the law that enslaves us and leads to death (7:6) to give us “the new life in the Spirit” (7:6). In chapter 8 Paul returns to that emphasis on life in and through the Spirit of God.

Key Words
V. 1. ouden ara nun ,,, = “There is therefore now…”: In light of the context of chapter 7, the word “therefore” seems to pick up the thought and imagery of 7:6 rather than the immediately preceding verses of 7:21-25. The reference to “no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus” flows from “But now we are discharged from the law …” (7:6a), and the second verse regarding “life in the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus” picks up the words “so that we serve not under the old written code but in the new life of the Spirit” (7:6b). The word “Spirit” does not appear between 7:6 and 8:2, but it appears ten times in 8:2-11.

V. 3. ho theos ton heautou huion pempsas en homoiōmati sarkas hamartias kai peri hamartias = “God … sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin (or “as a sin offering”): The words raise the question whether Paul is taking the docetic view that the Son of God did not really take human flesh but appeared something like a ghost. Paul uses the word homoiōma elsewhere, even in this epistle (1:23 in terms of the idolatrous deeds of the gentiles; at 5:15 in terms of the nature of sin; in 6:5 of the similarity of Christ’s death to our own). In the hymn quoted by Paul at Phil. 2:6-11, the word appears in verse 7:

“But emptied himself, taking the form (morphē) of a slave,
being born in human likeness (en homoiōmati).
And being found in human form (schēmati … hōs anthrōpos),
He humbled himself, and became obedient unto death,
even death on a cross.”

Many scholars argue that Paul added the words “even death on a cross” to the existing hymn in order to make abundantly clear that the Son of God did not merely appear to be human but was human, possessing flesh that nails would penetrate and blood that would emerge from the wounds. At Galatians 4:4, Paul wrote that “God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,” indicating that his birth was like (not appeared to be) our own. Further, at Col. 1:22 appears the expression “And you … he has now reconciled in his fleshly body….”

For the reality of the incarnation in other NT writers, see among many others John 1:14; Heb. 2:17; 4:15.

V. 5. “set their minds on the things of the flesh … on the things of the Spirit”: The effect of the divine gift of the Spirit enables people to look at life differently. Focusing on the “things of the Spirit” is “life and peace” rather than hostility to God (vss. 6-8). The Spirit, therefore, is the only source of life and peace.

V. 8. hoi de en sarki ontes theō aresai ou dynantai = “and those who are in the flesh cannot please God”: The way of Christ is not to please oneself but to please others by edifying them (Rom. 15:1-3; 1 Cor. 10:33). By contrast, those who minds focus on the flesh (selfish worldly gain) will not know the life and peace that comes from God.

V. 9-11. Being “in the Spirit” rather than “in the flesh,” Christians belong to Christ. If indeed Christ is within (among) us, while our bodies attest to our mortality, the Spirit makes us alive because of God’s righteousness (acquitting us in spite of our sinfulness). The same Spirit of God that raised Jesus from the dead already works in and among us to give us life that has no end.

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John 11:1-45
Revealing himself as “the resurrection and the life,” Jesus makes possible the gift of faith so that others, too, might join him in the life to come and so that he and God might be glorified.

Context
During the Feast of the Dedication in Jerusalem, Jesus taught about his relationship with the Father that caused some Jews to want to stone him (10:31) and arrest him (10:39).  Jesus crossed the Jordan to the point where John had been baptizing, and there many came to believe in him (10:40-42).

Key Words
V. 2.  “Mary who anointed the Lord with ointment and wiped his feet with her hair”:  The incident about Mary reported here actually appears in the next chapter (12:1-6). The story about such an act by a woman “who was a sinner” is reported at Luke 7:36-50 (see esp. v. 38), but in the Lukan story she is not named.  At Mark 14:3-9 an unnamed woman who enters the house of Simon the leper at Bethany; her act involves pouring ointment on his head but nothing is said about anointing his feet or drying them with her hair.

V. 4.  all’ hyper tēs doxēs tou theou, hina doxasthē ho huios tou theou di’ autēs = “but for the glory of God, so that the Son of God might be glorified through it”:  See John 9:3 where Jesus describes for the disciples the role the man’s blindness will play: “that the works of God might be revealed in him.”  At v. 27 Martha confesses to Jesus, “I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God.” In v. 40 Jesus reminds Martha that he promised she would see “the glory of God” if she believed.

V. 25.  egō eimi hē anastasis kai hē zōē = “I am the resurrection and the life”:  At 14:6 Jesus announces to the disciples that he is “the way, the truth, and the life.”  To say here that he is “the resurrection” means he must act in order to prove the point in advance of his own resurrection, and so he raises Lazarus from the grave by uttering his effective word.

V. 45.  “Many of the Jews, therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what he did, believed in him”:  Faith in who Jesus is seems once again to be the point of the story see vv. 27, 40; see also 2:23; 4:53; 9:35-38; 20:30-31. The result of such faith here, as in 20:30-31, is the gift of life.

Wrestling with the Word, episode 23: Day of Pentecost, Year B (May 31, 2009) May 16, 2009

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The Day of Pentecost

What would we do without the Spirit? We confess in the Apostles Creed that “I believe in the Holy Spirit,…”, but Martin Luther teaches in his Small Catechism that we cannot believe in much of anything without the Spirit. “I believe that by my own understanding or strength I cannot believe in Jesus Christ my Lord or come to him, but instead the Holy Spirit has called me through the gospel, enlightened me with his gifts, made me holy and kept me in the true faith,…” As we move from the beginning of Scripture through to the end, the Holy Spirit plays many roles in creation and redemption, apart from the role of enlightener that Luther describes. It is small wonder that the church regards this day when God poured out the Spirit to be the birth-day of the church.

Download or listen to Wrestling with the Word, episode 23: Day of Pentecost, Year B.

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Psalm 104: 24-34, 35b

The psalm is a beautiful hymn about God the Creator and the whole creation. It has attracted much attention and study because of its similarities to the Egyptian Hymn to the Sun God (Aton). Verses 1-4 praise God who, like a master builder, put the sky in place. Verses 5-9 celebrate the Lord’s mythical defeat of the Deep and the assignment of the waters on the earth. Verses 10-18 announce that springs and rains make vegetation grow so that the animals and humans have places to live and food to eat. Verses 19-23 extol the Lord for using night and day to the advantage of living things on earth. Our verses first celebrate the sea (a mythological enemy) as a delightful creation by the Lord where ships sail and Leviathan plays (vss. 24-26). Then the section praises God for the breath/Spirit that creates and sustains all life (vss. 27-30). The psalm starts its conclusion with announcing the glory of God in the phenomena of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions;  then it culminates in a first person statement of joy expressed through song and meditation (vss. 31-35).

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Ezekiel 37:1-14

Although the people lost hope in God and experienced death, God, through an inspired spokesperson, gives new life in the spirit and reunites them with himself.

Context

The people of Israel had been exiled to the land of Babylon in 597 B.C. and again in 587 B.C. In the fifth year of the first exile, that is, in 593 B.C., God called Ezekiel, a priest, to prophesy to the exiles. Much of his prophecy was directed to a false optimism as he preached to the exiles the destruction of their Jerusalem, their home. Finally, according to 33:21, a messenger came with the word that Jerusalem had fallen. Thereafter, the prophetic word from Ezekiel was one of restoration to the land, of promise to the exiles. Our pericope, therefore, belongs to that section of the book which promises such return.

Key Words

V. 1.  wayyôtsî’ēnî berûach YHWH = “and the spirit of the Lord brought me out”:  Note the connection of the Spirit with the hand of the Lord at 3:22-24 and 8:1-3. More specifically, the movement by the Spirit is attested at 3:12, 14 “Then the Spirit lifted me up”) and in the New Testament at Mark 1:12 (drove Jesus) and Acts 8:39 (snatched Philip).

V. 4.  hinnabē’ `al-ha`atsāmôt = “prophesy to/concerning these bones”:  the prophetic word is the means by which the dead will come to life.

V. 5. anî mēbî’ bākem rûach wihyîtem = “I will keep bringing among you spirit/breath/wind, that you may live”:  The word “spirit” is used is various ways in the prophecy; at v. 1 it seems to be God’s spirit; here it is the animating spirit for humans; at v. 9 it is the wind. That the rûach of God creates and restores life can be see also at Genesis 6:3; 6:17; 7:22 (all P). Job 12:10; Psalm 104:30. Note the contrast with Genesis 2:7 where the animating force that God breathes into Adam’s nostrils is not ruach but nešāmâ = “breath.”

V. 6.  wîda‘tem kî-’anî YHWH = “and you shall know that I am YHWH”:  The expression occurs eighty-six times in the Book of Ezekiel. Note the priestly emphasis (P) in the story of the exodus (Exodus 14:18), demonstrating that God is known by acts of judgment and salvation.

V. 11.  yābešû ‘atsmōtēnû = “our bones are dried up”:  Note Proverbs 22:17 where “a downcast spirit” is what “dries up the bones.”

V. 11.  we‘obdâ tiqwatēnû = “and our hope is perishing”:  The object of Israel’s hope is YHWH (see Psalm 39:7); at time “hope” is even used as an epithet for YHWH (“Hope of Israel”;see Jeremiah 14:8; 17:13).

V. 11.  nigzarnû lānû = “we are cut off”:  For the impact of such exclusion see the use of nigzar at 2 Chronicles 26:21 (King Uzziah was excluded from the temple); Psalm 88:6 (cut off from your hand = dead); Isaiah 53:8 servant of the Lord “cut off from the land of the living”).

V. 14.  kî-’anî YHWH dibbartî we‘āsîtî = “for I, YHWH, have spoken and I have done it”: The notion that it is the spoken word that accomplishes the great acts of the Lord is one that became particularly prominent during the Babylonian Exile; cf. Genesis 1; Isaiah 55:10-11; the Deuteronomistic history.

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Acts 2:1-21

God sends the promised Spirit, thus establishing the new community in the new Day in which the usual barriers that separate people disappear.

Context

In the days following Jesus’ ascension into heaven, the disciples gathered in Jerusalem to elect a replacement for Judas who died because of his betrayal (Acts 1:15-20). There they elected by lot Mathias over Joseph (1:21-26).

Key Words

V. 1.  tēn hēmeran tēs pentēcostēs = “the Day of Pentecost“:  The Greek word for the Feast of Weeks that the Jewish people celebrated fifty days after the Passover time. The fiftieth day marked the end of the grain harvest and the season to begin the offering of first fruits (Exod. 23:16; 34:22; Lev. 23:15-21; Num. 28:26-31; Deut. 16:9-12. This temporal reference for receiving the Spirit stands in contrast to John 20:19-23; there the resurrected Jesus bestows the Holy Spirit on the evening of Easter Day.

V. 2.  hōsper pheromenēs pnoēs biaias = “like the rush of a mighty wind”:  the coming of the Holy Spirit = pneumatos hagiou (v. 4). The words for “wind” and “spirit” are different here, although the word pneuma could have been used for both (see John 3:8). The appearance of “fire” along with the sound of the “wind” recall ancient theophanies (see Exod. 19:16-19; Isa. 66:15-16.

V. 4. kai eplēsthēsan pantes pneumatos hagiou ‘ “and all were filled with the Holy Spirit”: The expression bursts forth in Luke—Acts. It starts with the stories of the conception and birth of John and Jesus (Luke 1:15, 41, 67), Jesus’ baptism and temptation (Luke 4:1), and then extends beyond the Day of Pentecost to the ministry of Peter (Acts 4:8), Stephen (7:55), the call of Saul (9:17), the ministry of Barnabas (11:24) and of Paul (13:9). Thus, Acts 2:4 serves as the turning point for “all.”

V. 8. gleukous memestōmenoi eisin = “they are filled with new wine”: Note the Greek word for “filled with” is not the same as the one used for the Spirit in v. 4.

V. 11.  akouomen lalountōn autōn tais hēmeterais glōssais = “we hear them telling in our own languages”:  the miracle thus seems to be one of hearing in tongues (languages) rather than one of speaking in tongues (glossolalia; cf. 1 Cor. 14).

Vss. 17-18.  Additions to the quotation from Joel 2:28-32 are the words “in the last days …, God declares” (v. 17) and “they shall prophesy” (end of v. 18). The first addition assures “afterward” is interpreted as “the Day of YHWH.”

V. 21. “Then everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved”: These words from Joel 2:32 appear also at Romans 10:13 where Paul uses them to begin his section about hearing and preaching the word of God.

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Romans 8:22-27

Over against the suffering of this life, both for Christians and for all the world, God promises a glorious new life—a promise in which hope sustains us and for which the Holy Spirit enables us to pray.

Context

The 8th chapter of Romans describes what it means to be in the Spirit. The Christian life itself is life in the Spirit (vv. 1, 11). Spiritual life means living as children of God (vv. 12, 17). Now Paul turns to spiritual life as living in hope for a new day (vv. 18-30).

Key Words

V. 22.  hē ktisis systenazei kai synōdinei achri tou nun = “the creation has been in travail together and suffering agony together until now”:  The image of suffering as the birth pangs of a woman is common throughout Scripture (Ps. 48:6; Songs 8:5; Isa. 13:8; 21:3; 42:14; 45:10; 54:1; Jer. 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 13:21; 22:23; 31:8; 49:24; 50:43; Mic. 4:9, 10; 5:3; John 16:21; Gal. 4:27; 1 Thess. 5:3.

V. 23.  tēn aparchēn tou pneumatos = “the first fruits of the Spirit”:  The image of first fruits derives, of course, from the agricultural world and was part of the festival of weeks when the Jewish people returned the first produce from the ground to the Lord; as they delivered the offering they recited the historical confession of Deut. 26:5-9). Apart from agriculture the expression appears in the following ways:  of a father’s strength to produce offspring (Gen. 49:3), of Israel’s relationship with the Lord (Jer. 2:3), of those who have fallen asleep (1 Cor. 15:20), of those who belong to Christ (15:23), of God’s creatures who are Christian (James 1:8), of the redeemed (Rev.14:4).

V. 23.  en heautois stenazomen = “among us we groan”: The same verb is used in v. 19 for the “eager expectation” of the creation. (RSV’s “inwardly” does not take into account the collective nature of suffering among the Christian community.)

V. 23.  huiothesian apekdexomenoi = “as we are waiting for adoption”:  The expression “adoption” occurs also at Gal. 4:5 as the gift which God gave in his Son (there the adoption is a present reality).

V. 23. tēn apolytrōsin tou sōmatos hēmōn = “the redemption of our bodies”: Though the verb “redeem” and the active participle “redeemer” occur often in the OT, the noun form “redemption” appears only rarely in the NT. Paul uses the same word at 3:24 and 1 Cor. 1:30 (also Eph. 4:30).

Vv. 24, 25.  elpis = “hope”:  Throughout the Epistle to the Romans Paul emphasizes “hope” as the way to wait for what is still to come (5:2, 4, 5; 8:20, 24, 25; 12:12; 15:4, 12, 13). At Hebrews 11:1, “faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.” Further, at Galatians 5:5 Paul writes, “For through the Spirit, by faith, we wait for the hope of righteousness.”

Vss. 26-27. “the Spirit helps us …, intercedes with sighs too deep for words… the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God”:  The functions of the Spirit listed here are critical to our communication in prayer with God. Jude 20 instructs readers to “pray in the Holy Spirit.”

V. 27. ho de eraunōn tas kardias oiden = “the one (God) who searches the heart”: This understanding of God sounds similar to Ps. 139:1.

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John 15:26-27; 16:4b-15

In the face of the world’s persecuting the disciples as it persecuted Jesus, God the Father and God the Son will send the Paraclete who will guide the disciples in their witnessing and prove to the world it was wrong in sentencing Jesus to death.

Context

In the preceding verses, Jesus had been talking about the difficulties the disciples will have with the world that will hate them as it hated him.

Key Words

15:26. hotan elthē ho paraklētos hon egō pempsō hymin = “When the Paraclete comes whom I will send to you”: Jesus introduced the Paraclete at 14:26 as “another Paraclete” who will come when he leaves, but there the one who will send the Paraclete is the Father. At 1 John 2:1 Jesus is the Paraclete (NRSV “the Advocate”) who stands “at the side of” sinners on the day of judgment to represent us before God the Judge. The Paracelete is called here “the Spirit of truth,” a description introduced at 14:17 and repeated at 16:13. The relationship of “the truth” to Jesus is common in John’s Gospel (1:14; 8:32 and 36; 14:6; 19:37-38). At 16:13 the Spirit will “guide you into all the truth,” just as the Lord is petitioned to “lead me in thy truth and teach me, for thou art the God of my salvation (Ps. 25:5).

15:26-27. ekeinos martyrēsei peri emou; kai hymeis de martyreite = “That one (the Paraclete) will bear witness to me; and you also are witnesses”: The function of witnessing might involve not only telling the story and meaning of Jesus life and death but also taking the stand in a court case. Therefore, NRSV’s “testify” is appropriate.

16:8. kai elthōn ekeinos elegzei ton kosmon peri hamartias kai peri dikaiosynēs kai peri kriseōs = “and coming, that one (the Paraclete) will prove the world wrong regarding sin and justice/righteousness and judgment”: The function of the Paraclete here seems to focusd on reversing the conviction of Jesus at his trial before the Sanhedrin and Pilate  (still to come in chapter18).

16:13. kai ta erchomena anaggelei hymin = “and he (the Spirit) will declare to you the things to come”: In the OT God is the one who speaks the word and makes it come to pass. Therefore, God declares what will happen because God’s word effected them. The prophet second Isaiah, speaking God’s word to the exiles in Babylon, uses “trial speeches” in which YHWH takes the idols of Babylon to court and sues them. The idols cannot tell in advance what will happen (Isa. 44:7 kai ta eperchomena pro tou elthein anaggeilatōsan hymin), and so they are imposters. God, on the other hand, is the one who announced of old and declared it (44:8 ouk ap’ archēs ēnōtisasthe kei apēggeila hymin; see also 42:9; 46:10; 48:14). In this court God summons the people of Israel, “You are witnesses” (44:8 martyres hymeis este) to the uniqueness of God. The verdict determines that God’s word can be trusted.

Looking Ahead
The lessons for next Sunday, the Holy Trinity:
Psalm 29
Isaiah 6:1-8
Romans 8:12-17
John 3:1-17